Metal News for October 25, 2010
Last updated on August 27, 2016 at 3:31 PM ET
We post metal news every day, throughout the day, covering thousands of metal bands including underground and unsigned bands. You are currently browsing the news archive, but you can also find news by band.
38 news articles posted on this day.
Metalunderground.com is premiering the second new song off of 2 Sides 2 Die's new upcoming album "Fatal Flaw." "Thru My Veins" is available for streaming or free download below:
Download "Thru My Veins" (right click and "Save As...")
Last week we premiered the song "Autumn's Ashes," which you can still check out here.
Look for the full album stream of "Fatal Flaw" starting next week.
Once again, the band's CD release show is planned for November 12th in Wayneboro, Pennsylvania at Rocket Guitars and they are playing a free Halloween acoustic performance at their local Hot Topic in the York Galleria Mall on October 21st starting at 5pm.
Elvenpath has issued the following brief announcement about commencing the recording of a new album: "Today marks the beginning of our new album's recordings. At Kohlekeller studios we're working on our new songs which should be available in spring. Stay tuned." In the mean time, you can check out sample Elvenpath tracks available for streaming through the band's MySpace page.
German metal act Mortal Infinity has issued the following recap of the band's recent show in Prague:
"Prague show: Hey Guys, thank you so much. The show was absolutely sick! Thanks to Dying Behind, Kaar and everyone who took part at Jet Club. It was an epic night! We want to return as soon as possible."
The upcoming Mortal Infinity live shows are as follows:
05.11.2010 - Extreme Annihilation mit Sequester und Dead Knowledge - GUM Burghausen
27.11.2010 - Live in Zeholfing mit Childres' Lie und Icarus Dawn - Rainbow Zeholfing
Germany's Thulcandra has checked in with the following update about working on a second album:
"We are very proud to announce that we have almost completed the songwriting process for our upcoming release, which will be entitled 'Under a Frozen Sun,' With our second album, we are going to continue and refine our chosen path of creating an ice-cold atmosphere of majestic darkness. The new songs will contain all the trademarks found on our debut album, yet with more focus on epic and intricate melodies and extensive lead guitars.
"In order to assure a worthy, freezing production for the album, the band will once again work together with V. Santura at the mighty Woodshed Studios. The recordings will take place in the beginning of December. On a final note, the plans for an extensive European tour in 2011 are taking shape, more details will follow soon on our MySpace profile and on our facebook account."
The Ocean has announced on Wednesday, October 20th, the band was robbed on a highway near Madrid. The band issued the following statement:
"Two guys in a black BMW pulled us over with fake police IDs. They asked for our van papers and IDs and wanted to know if we had any money to declare. We were not skeptical at this point, as it is normal in Europe that you have to declare larger amounts of money when you're crossing borders, so we told them we had merch money with us, and the guy wanted to see it. When we showed them the merch wallet, the guy reached through the open window, seized it and ran back to the BMW in front of us, where his colleague was waiting with the engine running. Unfortunately our van and trailer don't match the speed of a BMW, but fortunately it's not allowed to carry guns in Europe, as otherwise we would be in jail now for shooting the guy in the face.
"We are facing a loss of + 6000 euro of merch income of the last days and fees. The exact amount is still to be determined. As some of you may or may not know, conditions on support tours are usually grim. Fees are low and barely cover expenses for van, gas, highway tolls, ferries etc. There is no accommodation arrangements, we've been crashing out on people's floors for weeks. Losing more than 6000 euro is something we simply cannot afford at this point.
"We are asking everyone who is planning to order Anthropocentric in the next few weeks through our shop to help out. You can do so by donating 5 Euro when you place your order. All income generated through this will make the loss smaller for us. Everyone who donates 5 Euro will receive a copy of the police report and a Thank You card signed by all band members. We would like to thank you in advance for your support!"
Sacramento, California melodic death metal act Conducting From The Grave has posted a new video trailer online for its forthcoming studio album "Revenants." "Revenants" is set for release on October 25, 2010 through Sumerian Records. You can view the trailer below:
Here is the "Revenants" tracklisting:
1. And Our War Will Dawn
2. The Tyrant's Throne
3. Unholiest Of Nightmares
4. Her Poisoned Tongues
5. Path Of A Traitor
7. We Who Shall Conquer
8. Curse In The Twilight
10. What Monsters We Have Become Pt. 1
11. What Monsters We Have Become Pt. 2
Maryland blackened death metal outfit Aurora Borealis guitarist/vocalist Ron Vento has released the following statement in regards to the band's forthcoming full length "Timeline: The Beginning And End Of Everything."
"The CD is what I consider to be a true chronological explanation of how everything was started and what will happen over the next 100 billion years and beyond.
"I try to touch on everything from the Big Bang, to the formation of planets and stars, life in the universe, evolution and creationism, eventual space colonization, the fabric of the universe itself, time travel, other dimensions and species trying to preserve their races. I also explain how I think it all will one day end.
"There are literally hundreds of hours wrapped up into this cd so far and we still have a good ways to go but the release should be out very early 2011.
"The CD will have a limited hard copy run with fairly elaborate package. However, we plan to also put up a link with a ZIP file of the entire package's artwork and layout as well as high-quality lossless audio files on the web site for people who cannot afford to buy the CD.
"I want anyone who wants the CD to have it.
"It's not about making money on this, it's about putting out a great CD and getting [the album] into the hands of people who want it."
British extreme metal act Cradle Of Filth has announced the dates for its first North American tour since 2009, a headlining run being dubbed as the "Creatures From The Black Abyss Tour", in February 2011. Support on the tour will come from Nachtmystium, Turisas and Daniel Lioneye.
"Creatures From The Black Abyss Tour"
Feb. 01 - Houston, TX - Warehouse Live
Feb. 02 - Dallas, TX - Palladium Ballroom
Feb. 04 - Tempe, AZ - Marquee Theatre
Feb. 05 - Pomona, CA - Fox Theater
Feb. 06 - Las Vegas, NV - House of Blues
Feb. 08 - Los Angeles, CA - Club Nokia Live
Feb. 09 - San Francisco, CA - Regency Ballroom
Feb. 11 - Seattle, WA - Showbox Theatre
Feb. 12 - Spokane, WA - Knitting Factory
Feb. 13 - Vancouver, BC - Commodore Ballroom
Feb. 15 - Edmonton, AB - Edmonton Events Center
Feb. 16 - Calgary, AB - MacEwan Hall Ballroom
Feb. 18 - Englewood, CO - Gothic Theatre
Feb. 20 - Chicago, IL - House of Blues
Feb. 21 - Milwaukee, WI - The Rave
Feb. 23 - Pittsburgh, PA - Club Zoo
Feb. 25 - Detroit, MI - Harpo's
Feb. 26 - Toronto, ON - Sound Academy
Feb. 27 - Montreal, QC - Metropolis
Feb. 28 - Quebec City, QC - Imperial de Quebec
Mar. 02 - Philadelphia, PA - Trocadero
Mar. 03 - New York, NY - Best Buy Theater
Mar. 04 - Worcester, MA - Palladium
Mar. 05 - Sayreville, NJ - Starland Ballroom
Mar. 06 - Baltimore, MD - Bourbon Street Ballroom
Mar. 08 - Norfolk, VA - Norva Theatre
Mar. 09 - Asheville, NC - The Orange Peel
Mar. 11 - Fort Lauderdale, FL - Revolution
Mar. 12 - Orlando, FL - Firestone
Mar. 13 - Atlanta, GA - The Masquerade
Italian symphonic melodic metal act Violet Sun has revealed the tracklisting for its forthcoming debut full length album. The album, titled "Loneliness In Supremacy," is set for release on November 19, 2010 through Melodic Rock Records.
Here is the "Loneliness In Supremacy" tracklisting:
1. Dust In The Wind
2. Inside Out
4. When The Lights Go Down
5. Cross The Line
6. Falling In Love
7. Where Is My Way Home
8. My Flame Still Burns
9. Pray On The Grave
10. Break Your Chains
11. Synthetic Pleasures
12. Loneliness In Supremacy
The Iniquity Descent, the new project featuring Finntroll's Vreth (Mathias Lillmans ), has revealed the tracklisting for its forthcoming EP, titled "Trust The Serpent."
"Trust The Serpent" EP tracklisting:
1. Obedience Torn
2. Decimate, Disintegrate
3. Trust The Serpent
4. Asinine & Absurd
San Francisco, California heavy metal act Vicious Rumors has announced its signing with SPV/Steamhammer records. The signing comes in time for the band to release its forthcoming stufio album, titled "Razorback Killer," through the label in March of 2011.
"Razorback Killer" was recorded at Trident Studios in Pacheco, California with producers Juan Urteaga and Vicious Rumors guitarist Geoff Thorpe.
Triptykon has confirmed its appearance for the 2011 edition of the Helsinki Metal Meeting. The Helsinki Metal Meeting takes place between February 17th, 18th and 19th, 2011 at the Cable Factory in Helsinki, Finland.
THE MAN-EATING TREE
My Dying Bride has previously announced the release of a 20th anniversary album entitled "Evinta." Peaceville Records has now issued a brief update stating that the release of "Evinta" has been delayed until early 2011. Additional details on the exact release date and what tracks will be included on the album will be announced as they are made available.
Unearth has issued the following announcement about parting ways with drummer Derek Kerswill:
"After three plus years of touring the world together and playing on our latest album 'The March,' we have parted ways with drummer Derek Kerswill. The most notable reason for the split are the creative differences. The time has come for Unearth to write a new album and creating music with a tight unit is the only way we can assure the best collection of songs possible. The differences between Kerswill and the band started off as subtle, but became increasingly obvious over the past few months and it was time for both parties to go their separate ways.
"We have shared a ton of great experiences and achieved many of the goals we set for ourselves in the time he was in the band. There is no ill will from either side of this decision and we wish him only the best moving forward. Unearth won't skip a beat, though, as we will be announcing a replacement drummer for our upcoming European stint on the Persistence Tour shortly. Lastly some exciting plans are coming together for the recording to the follow up to 'The March' sometime early in 2011."
"Creative differences are real and unfortunately have gotten the best of me. I wish the guys luck in the future and thank you to everyone who ever loved + supported 'The March'," Kerswill stated.
Norway's In Vain has issued the following update about European tour dates alongside My Silent Wake: "We will do a European Tour in November together with the British Progressive Death/Doom band My Silent Wake. This tour will take us to countries we have never been before so we are looking forward to it! See you guys!" The currently announced dates are as follows:
11/5 Gigant - Apeldoorn (NL, Brainstorm Festival)
11/7 UJT Uelsen - Uelsen (Ger)
11/8 Casta Club - Liberec (Cz)
11/9 Chliv - Ostrava (Cz)
11/10 Smerr Pub - Zilina (Sk)
11/11 Garage Deluxe - Munchen (Ger)
11/12 Rocktown - Temple of Music - Pfaffikon (CH)
11/13 Burgerhaus Heilbronn - Heilbronn (Ger, Blast of Eternity)
A two part video documentary about Crystal Viper's new album "Legends" has been posted online. The first part can be viewed below and the second can be found after the jump. "Legends" was released on October 22nd via AFM Records
Canada's Forgotten Tales has issued the following brief announcement about drummer Mike Belanger winning the Roland V-Drums contest:
"Hi fans. This morning was held the grand finale of the Canadian Roland V-Drums Contest 2010 at the Montreal Drum Fest. We are proud to announce you that this year's winner is Mike Bélanger. Once again he has manage to impress us with his great talent."
You can also check out sample Forgotten Tales songs available for streaming via the band's MySpace page.
Ihsahn has checked in with the following announcement about writing new songs for an upcoming fourth full-length album:
"Ihsahn played a lot of festivals and shows this summer/autumn, and is currently concentrating on upgrading the studio as well as writing new material for his fourth album.
"We would like to take the opportunity to wish Ihsahn’s backing band Leprous the very best of luck for their forthcoming European tour as support for Therion. Fingers crossed for success! You can check out where and when they’re playing here, their shows come highly recommended from us.
"We would also like to recommend you to check out friend and former Emperor collegue, Tomas, new band called The Wretched End, wishing him good fortune with their debut release. For more information, please see this location."
Solace of Requiem has issued the following announcement about the release of a new album and working on new material:
"SOR's third CD The Great Awakening (Produced by the great Andy Classen) is scheduled for release Very Soon! All the preparations are currently being made to sell the CD via PayPal, Amazon, CD Baby, I Tunes, etc.. Hopefully, the CD will be available for purchase through these outlets in the coming weeks. There are also new merch designs that will be made available for purchase at that time. Check back to the site periodically for CD and merch availability.
"SOR is currently writing new material. The plan is to record a 4 song EP in the summer of 2011 to shop to perspective record labels. During this time there will be no live shows. However, there are talks of another EU tour with the German band Moshquito in the spring of 2012. Also, depending on where the new EP is recorded, a few shows in the USA might be possible during the summer of 2011. Nothing is for certain yet, but SOR is definitely anxious to get back on the road as soon as possible. More info will be posted as soon as it becomes available."
Each week in Unearthing the Metal Underground, we'll be putting a few quality underground bands in the spotlight in an attempt to expose them to the world outside their respective scenes. Although the Los Angeles scene is anything but unified, this apocalyptic city has produced more than a handful of quality bands. This week I’ll be exploring the Los Angeles old school death metal scene.
The L.A. scene is hardly known for authenticity in its death metal, mainly because the current scene is dominated by fad-jumping metalcore and glam throwback acts, but there are other more subtle reasons for its staying underground. For example, there is the fact that while bands in the Florida and New York death metal scenes, for example, were releasing genre-defining full-length albums, LA bands such as the ones below had to make do with short format releases, such as demos and EP’s. Compare Morbid Angel, who, by 1993, had released four full-length albums, to Sadistic Intent, who have yet to release one. Nevertheless, a limited output doesn’t necessarily equate a lack of talent, and so without further ado, here are three of the most talented bands to have graced the LA scene past and present.
Without doubt L.A.’s best underground band, and quite possibly one of the world’s most underrated metal acts of all time, Sadistic Intent plays fierce death metal that borrows from various traditions in the vast heritage of heavy metal. One can discern a range of influences, from Dark Angel and Slayer to Possessed and Morbid Angel, tucked within the unique tapestry that forms the band’s sound. They write long, involved, and esoteric death metal songs with occult lyrics and a truly sinister atmosphere, making them absolutely essential for lovers of morbid, underground metal. Try their EP’s "Resurrection" and "Impending Doom" for obscure and esoteric death metal, or go for "Ancient Black Earth" if fast and blasting percussive madness is more along the lines of what you crave.
If you live in the greater Los Angeles area, seeing Sadistic Intent live is a must, and lucky for you they play at least several shows a year. (Also note that the band members, along with vocalist Jeff Becerra, fill out the current lineup of Possessed.) In a live setting, the band is truly professional, and always live up to their moniker (and then some). Check out the video below to see what you’re getting yourself into.
Washington's Somnae has issued the following announcement about recruiting a new drummer:
"So we got good news for you folks. A new drummer has been added to our line-up and we're very proud to announce his addition to the band.
"Alexander Linder (Axis of Evil, Somnombalistic) is now the official drummer for Somnae and will be featured on the new album as well as future live performances. We are very excited to finally start playing live and are looking forward to getting shows booked. Feel free to contact us if you'd like to book us for local or international shows."
The Burning has posted a fourth studio video online from the band's time recording "Hail the Horde," which can be viewed below. The Burning also commented:
"We have uploaded the final studio webisode from the recordings of 'Hail the Horde,' out in Europe on October 25 via Massacre Records. This time we follow bassist Thue Moeller as he enters Jacob Bredahls (Purified in Blood, The Kandidate) studio to lay down bass for the album. Check out the final webisode below."
In Twilight's Embrace has issued the following update about signing to Spook Records for the release of the band's "Slaves to Martyrdom" album:
"After a couple of weeks, we’re back with the news of sealing a pact with Cracovean powerhouse Spook Records for the release of our second whirlwind, 'Slaves to Martyrdom.' Under this banner, we are confident that In Twilight’s Embrace will be paid the proper amount of attention, as well as maintain the right to self-determination.
"Dawid has been working for some quality metal and hardcore bands for years now, and is enjoying their respect and good reputation. With our new abode, we’re ready to put our new agenda into effect. 'Slaves to Martyrdom' will lay its poisonous kiss upon your sons and daughters in January 2011!"
Sweden's Inmoria recently finished recording the band's upcoming full-length album. Inmoria has now posted samples up from every song on the new album, which are available for streaming via the band's official website. The "A Farewell to Nothing" track listing is as follows:
2. My Shadow Fall
3. The Mirror
4. End of the Line
5. In My Dreams
6. Just Another Lie
7. Save Me
8. Hear My Prayers
9. Watch me Bleed
10. The Silence Within Me
11. All For Granted
Threshold has checked in with the following update about lining up 2011 tour dates: "Threshold have confirmed their first shows of next year with two dates in the Netherlands followed by a festival headline show at a new progressive and symphonic metal festival in the UK called Fused."
The currently announced dates are as follows:
3/24 2011 - The Rock Temple, Kerkrade, NL
3/25 2011 - Boerderij, Zoetermeer, NL
4/2 2011 - Fused Festival, Lydney, UK
Florida act After Death has issued the following announcement about providing a cover song for an upcoming Venom tribute:
"An old idea from around 2002 is finally coming true. A tribute to Venom album. Venom has always been a big influence for quite a lot of Iron Pegasus bands and the label itself. It will not be just another tribute but a tribute with bands that somehow worked (or will work) with Iron Pegasus or Rock Saviour, with bands who understand what Venom was all about, like Desaster, Superchrist, Rok, Gorgon, etc.
"No cheap rehearsal or live stuff but real studio recordings. As a special feature, After Death will do a cover version of the entire 'At War With Satan' song, something nobody has done before (as far as we know). Release date is not sure yet, but let's hope for Autumn/Winter 2010."
Conspires To... recently posted the new song "Voice in the Storm" online via the band's MySpace page. Conspires To... has now issued the following statement about the track:
"Voice in the storm is about desperation, and blindly searching for a saviour, but being too willing to accept the first thing to come along. Ultimately this can lead to the weak being preyed upon or bad choices being made. I had number of things in mind whilst writing these lyrics. The catalyst was watching a lowlife loser shout at and push his pregnant girlfiend around in the street, and thinking how such a beautiful thing for a woman as child birth, can so easily turn into something so tragic at the mercy of others. All ultimately through a bad choice.
"This got me thinking about the people who vote people like Saddam Husein into power, desperate for someone to make a difference and give then some quality of life, only to be imprisoned or murdered, at the hands of the person they supported. At it's most literal it is a song about someone turning to religion only to realize that they have sold their soul to the devil .....ok so that is probably a far more metal explanation.....we'll go with that one then."
California based metal outfit Devildriver has announced that their forthcoming new studio album will be simply entitled, "Beast." The record will be hitting the shelves on February 22nd through Roadrunner Records and was produced by Mark Lewis, who has previously worked with Trivium, All That Remains and The Black Dahlia Murder.
Fuelblooded has posted a video clip online of the band performing "The Shortest Straw," which can be viewed below. The band also commented on the footage:
"Hi ya'll! We finally took some time to render a couple of clips from our last show, which was in February of this year. Yeah... long time ago :( But the situation is like it is, at least we're still around and writing new music for the next album! For now, we are happy to show you two songs from our CD presentation show at the W2. Go check em out on the official Fuelblooded YTC! We'll probably post a couple more later... Have fun!"
Chimaria has posted an unreleased clip from the "Coming Alive" DVD. In this clip, Rob Arnold takes you on a tour of industrial Cleveland while singing along to his favorite Six Feet Under song, "Remains of You."
This clip was recorded for Chimaira's recent dvd, Coming Alive, which is available here.
Brooklyn three-guitar led sludge metal band HULL will be performing a special "secret" show tonight, Monday, October 25, 2010, at Public Assembly in Brooklyn presented by 1000 Knives and Brooklyn Vegan. Here are the deatils:
70 North 6th St.
Closet Subway: L to Bedford Ave.
Cross Streets: Wythe and Kent
Doors @ 7:30
HULL @ 8:00
KYLESA @ 9:00
$10.00 gets you in!
HULL released their debut full-length, "Sole Lord," via The End Records in 2009. The band is currently working on their follow-up with co-producer Brett Romnes. Further details are to be announced shortly.
As previously announced, Decibel Magazine is currently streaming their "Viking Funeral" EP, which the band self-released in 2007.
Holy Rage, the band featuring original Judas Priest singer Al Atkins, has announced that guitarist Chris Johnson has had leave the band as a result of health issues. A message from the group reads as follows:
"Al's long time best friend and bandmate has been forced to quit Holy Rage due to ongoing health issues.
"Chris (Johnson, guitar) has appeared on three Holy Rage / Al Atkins albums and has been friends with Al for many years. He also appears on all tracks on the new Holy Rage CD.
"Chris himself is fine and having treatment and still likes a beer so he aint that bad. Although Chris will no longer be playing for the foreseeable future he will still be in charge of all band PR and the more technical side.
"We wish him well and a speedy recovery and I am sure we will go to a few bars soon."
Heavy metal godfather Ozzy Osbourne has been confirmed for a headlining performance at next year's edition of Germany's famous Wacken Open Air festival. Ozzy will be headlining on thursday the 22nd of August, which is the first day of the event. Other bands confirmed for the festival so far include Suicidal Tendencies, Blind Guardian, Apocalyptica, Mayhem and Avantasia.
Norther has completed work on their new album, "Circle Regenerated." Kristian Ranta (guitars) comments on the competition & work in the studio:
"We have now reached the voting state with our cover art competition. Please give your vote for the best cover to be selected as the official album cover for our upcoming new album 'Circle Regenerated.' Huge thanks to everyone for participating!"
"As you may know, we have been in the studio lately recording our 6th full length album – 'Circle Regenerated.' Things have gone pretty well despite some minor schedule problems. We are now finalizing our recordings and after that the mixing will start. The album will be out through Century Media early 2011. The material is a bit different, and a lot better from what we have done before!"
"Our new guys, Aleksi and Daniel have contributed tremendously and the team is working better than ever. We are absolutely thrilled to get this stuff out to you guys!"
"Meanwhile you can check out some of our studio videos here:
Stream WAR FROM A HARLOTS MOUTH's entire new album "MMX" at this location. The album will be released on November 9th in North America.
The tracklisting for "MMX" is as follows:
02. To Age And Obsolete
03. The Increased Sensation Of Dullness
04. Sleep Is The Brother Of Death
05. The Polyglutamine Pact
06. Cancer Man
07. C.G.B. Spender
10. Recluse MMX
11. Inferno III/VI
Thomas G. Fischer (aka Tom Warrior,) the frontman of European extreme metal outfit Triptykon and former leader of Celtic Frost and Hellhammer, has checked in with an update from the band's first North American tour, which is being undertaken with 1349 and Yakuza. His message reads as follows:
"The concert in San Francisco last night was one of the most intense and most memorable we have ever experienced with Triptykon. It ranks very highly among the truly outstanding nights we have been granted on this current tour of North America, such as those in New York, Chicago, Boston, at church in Pittsburgh, Seattle, and Montreal. Once again, we are deeply indebted to an audience who returned to us at least as much as we gave them in the first place.
"The night in San Francisco was only slightly marred by the fact that, after our performance, I was unable to find the truly extraordinary new friends I had made before the concert. I had hoped for a continuation of a deeply inspiring and moving conversation.
"A little more than three years ago, when I stood onstage at the very same venue in San Francisco, as part of a rapidly deteriorating group called Celtic Frost who that very day were almost dismissed from the Type O Negative tour due to the behaviour of one of our band's members, I would have never imagined all of this taking place. To be given the chance to return to San Francisco and be welcomed in such a warm and enthusiatic manner means more to me than I could ever express."
According to Metal Sludge, it appears that 80s hard rock veterans Ratt may once again be close to calling it a day. A rumour recently circulated that bass player Robbie Crane was out of the band, so Metal Sludge contacted the bassist and when asked about the situation, he replied:
"As far as I'm concerned there is no Ratt to be 'fired' from, as Ratt is on an indefinite hiatus as we've finished the Infestation tour in Japan last week. Warren has dates with his and Dee Snider's Christmas band, Stephen has 4 to 6 months of solo dates, Carlos is working with Rudy and Vinny on an awesome new project and I'm touring with Lynch Mob over the next couple of months. Thanks for the concern."
Stay tuned for further updates.
Read the full article at Metal Sludge.
Season of Mist announced last week the resigning of Japanese technical death metal band Defiled.
The band will release a new album, entitled "In Crisis,", its first since 2003's "Divination," on January 17th, 2011 in Europe and January 25th in the U.S. Defiled's founding member, Yusuke Sumita, had this to say:
"Our long awaited new album, 'In Crisis' is finally at hand. Since our previous effort "Divination," SOM have been waiting for a new Defiled album, so we are very proud to be back home on Season of Mist, the best label on this planet."